A Comparative Study of Arts Education Curriculum of Primary Schools in Iran and Canada

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 M.A. in Curriculum, Department of Education, shahid Bahonar Univesity of Kerman, Kerman, Iran

2 َAssociate Professor of curriculum, Department of Education, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor of Curriculum, Department of Education, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran.

10.22034/ijce.2020.202208.1052

Abstract

The rationale for conducting this study was based on an interdisciplinary approach between art and curriculum. The main purpose was to examine Iranian and Canadian primary arts education curricula based on these four components: goals, content, teaching methods and evaluation methods. The research method was comparative, using Bereday’s four-step approach. The sample selection method was based on the strategy of “different systems, different results”. Data were collected using documents, available information in official government databases, books, and publications, that were analyzed based on John Stuart Mill’s agreement/difference method. The findings revealed significant similarities and differences between the primary schools’ arts education curricula in Iran and Canada. The similarities were found to be based on the goals and the differences mainly in the content of curriculum. Regarding the goals, although both countries have used their national cultural backgrounds in formulating the goals, Canada also has considered the native and folk culture in development of the curriculum. Furthermore, in Canada, the emphasis is on awareness of inner emotions as a prerequisite for the production of art. In the element of content, dance and music education is not included in the Iranian arts education curriculum, and in Canada, the storytelling falls under the category of drama. As to the teaching methods, getting artists to teach art is not conventional in Iran’s education, but in Canada, artists teach art alongside teachers.Moreover, the purpose of arts education evaluation in Canada is to "improve learning", while in Iran, the measure of "learning ability" is generally considered.

Highlights

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Keywords


Article Title [فارسی]

بررسی تطبیقی برنامه‌درسی هنر دوره ابتدایی ایران و کانادا

Authors [فارسی]

  • معصومه خسروی مشیزی 1
  • اصغر سلطانی 2
  • مهرانگیز علینژاد 3
1 کارشناس ارشد برنامه ریزی درسی، گروه علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان، کرمان، ایران.
2 دانشیار برنامه درسی، گروه علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان، کرمان، ایران.
3 استادیار برنامه درسی، گروه علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان، کرمان ایران.
Abstract [فارسی]

مقاله حاضر بر بنیان رهیافتی میان رشته‌ای در هنر و برنامه‌درسی تهیه شده است. هدف مقاله بررسی تطبیقی برنامه‌درسی هنر دورة ابتدایی ایران و کانادا در چهار مؤلفه‌ اهداف، محتوا، روش‌های تدریس و شیوه‌های ارزشیابی بود. روش پژوهش، تطبیقی با بهره‌گیری از رویکرد چهار مرحله‌ای بردی و انتخاب نمونه پژوهش با توجه به استراتژی «نظام‌های متفاوت، نتایج متفاوت» صورت پذیرفته است. داده‌ها با استفاده از اسناد، مدارک و اطلاعات موجود در پایگاه‌های رسمی دولتی، کتب و نشریات جمع‌آوری و برای تحلیل از شیوه توافق - تفاوت جان استوارت میل استفاده شد. یافته‌ها نشان داد که بین برنامه‌درسی هنر دورة ابتدایی مدارس ایران و کانادا شباهت‌ها و تفاوت‌های قابل توجهی وجود دارد. شباهت‌ها بیشتر در اهداف و تفاوت‌ها عمدتاً در محتوا است. در عنصر اهداف، اگرچه هر دو کشور زمینه فرهنگیِ ملی خود را در تدوین اهداف به کار بسته‌اند، با این‌حال در کانادا، فرهنگ بومی و محلی نیز در اهداف برنامه درسی مورد توجه قرار گرفته است. همچنین، در کانادا بر آگاهی یافتن از احساسات درونی به‌عنوان پیش‌نیاز تولید هنر تأکید شده است. در عنصر محتوا، رقص و آموزش موسیقی در برنامه‌درسی ایران دیده نمی‌شود و در کانادا قصه‌گویی زیرمجموعة محتوای درام و نمایش است. در عنصر روش‌های تدریس، استفاده از هنرمندان در روش‌های تدریس هنر در ایران پیش‌بینی نشده است، اما در کانادا از متخصصان هنر در کنار معلمان برای تدریس استفاده می‌شود. در عنصر ارزشیابی، هدف ارزشیابی آموزش هنر در کانادا، «بهبود یادگیری» است، اما در ایران سنجش میزان «توانایی یادگیری» فراگیر مورد توجه است.

Keywords [فارسی]

  • آموزش هنر
  • برنامه درسی
  • دورة ابتدایی
  • کانادا
  • ایران
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