A Comparative Study of Employment Competencies of Undergraduate Course of Educational Sciences in Iran and Syria

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 PhD Student , Department of Curriculum, Faculty of Education and Psychology , Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Curriculum Studies, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad

3 Associate Professor, Department of Curriculum Studies, Faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Mashhad

4 Associate Professor, Department of Curriculum and Education Studies, Faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Mashhad

10.22034/ijce.2020.212361.1080

Abstract

The aim of present study was to investigate competencies of employment in the field of educational sciences in Iran and Syria through comparative research method. In the qualitative section, competencies were collected through documentary study and semi-structured interviews. In this section, the participants included 8 faculty members of Department of Educational Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and 7 members of Tartus University of Syria, which were selected by targeted sampling method. In quantitative section, expert evaluation and questionnaire were used to validate the competencies. Data analysis of qualitative part was done through open and axial coding and quantitative part was performed using mean comparison test (One Sample T-Test). The research findings showed that employability qualifications of undergraduate course in educational sciences of both universities can be divided into two groups of general and professional competencies. General competencies include four categories: intellectual, interpersonal (communication), leadership and individual skills; and specialized competencies include five categories: educational evaluation, psychological skill, technology skill, curriculum and specialized knowledge. The results of single-sample t-test showed that general competencies in both universities are same in intellectual skill, but there is a difference between two universities in individual, communication and leadership skills. The results also confirm that in terms of professional competence, both universities are similar in terms of educational and technological evaluation components, but there is a difference in psychological skills, curriculum and specialized knowledge.

Highlights

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Keywords


Article Title [فارسی]

مطالعه تطبیقی شایستگی‌های اشتغال‌پذیری دوره کارشناسی علوم تربیتی در ایران و سوریه

Authors [فارسی]

  • ممدوح سلامه 1
  • مرتضی کرمی 2
  • بهروز مهرام 3
  • مقصود امین خندقی 4
1 دانشجو دکتری، گروه مطالعات برنامه درسی ، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد
2 گروه مطالعات برنامه درسی و آموزش، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد
3 دانشیار ، گروه مطالعات برنامه درسی و آموزش، دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد
4 دانشیار، گروه مطالعات برنامه درسی و آموزش ، دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی ، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد
Abstract [فارسی]

هدف تحقیق حاضر بررسی شایستگی­های اشتغال­ پذیری رشته علوم تربیتی در ایران و سوریه با استفاده از روش تحقیق تطبیقی آمیخته است. جامعه آماری شامل کلیه اعضای هیأت علمی رشته علوم تربیتی در دو دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد و طرطوس سوریه و روش نمونه گیری هدفمند بود. در بخش کیفی تحقیق ، داده های مرتبط با شایستگی ها از طریق مطالعه اسنادی و مصاحبه نیم ساختار یافته گردآوری شد. در بخش کمی به منظور اعتباریابی شایستگی ها از پرسشنامه استفاده شد. تحلیل داده های بخش کیفی از طریق کدگذاری باز و محوری و بخش کمی به کمک آزمون مقایسه میانگین(t تک گروهی) صورت پذیرفت. یافته های پژوهش نشان داد شایستگی­ های اشتغال­ پذیری برای فارغ التحصیلان دوره کارشناسی علوم تربیتی در دانشگاه­ های منتخب به دو ﺑﺨﺶ شایستگی­ های ﻋﻤﻮﻣﯽ و ﺗﺨﺼﺼﯽ تقسیم می­ شوند. شایستگی­ های عمومی شامل 4 گروه مهارت های فکری، بین فردی (ارتباطی)، رهبری و فردی؛ و شایستگی ­های تخصصی دربردارنده 5 مقوله ارزشیابی آموزشی، مهارت های روانشناسی، مهارت های فناوری، برنامه درسی و دانش تخصصی بود. یافته ها نشان داد که بین دو دانشگاه در مولفه مهارت فکری شایستگی­ های عمومی شباهت وجود دارد.  همچنین یافته ها موید آن است که در بعد شایستگی تخصصی دو دانشگاه­ در مولفه ­های مهارت­ ارزشیابی آموزشی و فناوری با هم مشابه هستند ولی بین مولفه­ های مهارت­ های روانشناسی، برنامه درسی و دانش تخصصصی با یکدیگر تفاوت دارند.

Keywords [فارسی]

  • شایستگی
  • شایستگی‌های اشتغال‌پذیری
  • علوم تربیتی
  • ایران
  • سوریه

 

  1. 1.      Introduction

 

         Today, the employment of higher education graduates is one of the most important issues in societies - as an economic, social and cultural challenge - (Salehi Omran, 2006). Employment of university and higher education centers’ graduates in the job market depends on skills and characteristics that must be created while studying at university. It seems that lack of relationship between processes and curricula of university's fields with skills and abilities required by labor market is most important factor in the failure of graduates to find a job. What is taught to students in universities cannot be implemented in labor market of countries. Also, some external factors - which are outside the scope of activity and control of higher education system - have a great impact on employment of graduates (Aghapour et al., 2014: 683). In this regard, the competency-based curriculum, due to its unique features, has attracted attention of most of world's educational systems in recent years, especially in the field of higher education. From view of experts, strengths of this approach have led to an increase in its use (Dilmour et al., 2011). Balakarishan (2005) has points out that educational systems need to be seriously revised to meet needs of labor market. Through a competency-based education system, students gain self-confidence, master specific areas of work, become aware of the depth and breadth of competency required, and will be given ample opportunity to achieve a certain level of competence, to be employed in appropriate jobs.

 

            One of concepts expressed in the field of employment is employability. Different definitions of employability are provided. Asonito (2015), for example, defines employability as the set of knowledge, skills, and attitudes that help a person begin to play an effective role in labor market. Employment competence refers to a wide range of competencies that have been defined, articulated, and classified by researchers and experts in a variety of ways. Most of these classifications include communication, interpersonal and social competencies, organizational and planning, problem solving, creative thinking, and technological literacy (Chaharbashu et al., 2013). Today, educational sciences as an interdisciplinary field in the humanities need special attention to labor market needs and its employability. To improve the situation of educational sciences, strategies such as increasing students' ability to use modern technology; encouraging a culture of lifelong learning; critical and systematic problem solving are suggested (Arefi, 2004). It is also necessary to advance curriculum of educational sciences in order to advance employability goals. Nowadays, students have soft skills (positive attitude, effective communication, problem solving, time management, teamwork spirit, self-confidence, criticism, flexibility, etc.) and hard skills (degree or technical certificate, foreign language proficiency, computer skills) have a better chance of finding job compare to other students (Sarafana, 2009: 1). In this regard, several scientific studies have been conducted on labor market skills in different countries. These skills are referred to by different words. For example, in the United Kingdom these skills are called nuclear or key skills, in Australia key competencies, in New Zealand essential skills, in the United States general skills, and in Canada employment skills (Salehi Omran, 2007: 76).

 

            In Iran, unemployment among university graduates is one of the main challenges for national development (Sharafi and Moghadam, 2015). In this regard, one of the important components for judging internal and external efficiency of higher education system is quality of human resources in its coordination with needs and changes of labor market. With recent expansion of higher education in Iran and while labor market characteristics have not been carefully considered - in terms of amount and structure of the required specializations at higher levels -, a significant number of graduates have not been able to be attracted to the labor market ( Pouratashi et al., 2013). In Syria, university graduates play an active and effective role in the country's development. Under government law and regulation, engineering graduates are hired each year, but graduates of basic sciences and humanities take part in recruitment examination every two years. In recent years, due to the war, employment rate has declined. The purpose of present study is to compare employment competencies of bachelor's degree in educational sciences in Iran and Syria. According to this goal, the research questions are:

 

1. What are the qualifications of employment in the field of educational sciences in Iran and Syria?

2. What are similarities and differences between Iran and Syria in terms of employment-qualifications of undergraduate course in educational sciences?

 

2. Research Method

 

         The present research method is a comparative type using mixed approach. In the qualitative section, competency indicators were collected through documentary study and semi-structured interviews. In this section, the statistical population included all faculty members in the field of educational sciences at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and Tartus University in Syria. Targeted sampling method was used to select participants, which included 8 people in Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and 7 people in Tartus and Tashrin universities. A semi-structured interview was used to collect data. The interviews continued until theoretical saturation. The interview with Iranian and Syrian professors was conducted by principal researcher - originally from Syria. Interviews with Iranian professors were conducted in person and with Syrian professors via Skype. In the quantitative part of the research, in order to validate competency indicators, the evaluation of experts and a researcher-made questionnaire were used. The questionnaire consisted of 60 items and had a scale of 10 values. Data analysis of qualitative part was done through open and central coding and quantitative part was done through mean comparison test (One Sample T-Test). MAXQDA software was used for qualitative data analysis and SPSS software for quantitative data.

 

           The following four steps were performed to identify indicators of employment competencies required and appropriate to undergraduate course of educational sciences: First, the existing models in terms of employability competencies were examined. Second, a semi-structured interview was conducted with eight experts in Ferdowsi University of Mashhad to identifying qualifications required for employment. Then, interviews were conducted with seven specialists and professors of educational sciences at Tartus University in Syria. Thus, competency indicators considered by Iranian interviewees also approved or new indicators were identified by Syrian experts. Finally, a more comprehensive list of competency components was obtained. The content of interviews included questions about current status of educational sciences, competences of graduates, and interviewee's expectations. The time of each interview was between 15 to 50 minutes. After the implementation, the interviews were analyzed using the coding process in MAXQDA software. In the first step, the interview text was thoroughly examined. Then, the categories were identified. After performing above steps, text of interviews was re-examined to find more possible categories. The interviews continued until information was not new and categories were duplicated. According to previous two steps, the initial list of competencies of employment of Bachelor's degree in educational sciences of Iran and Syria was developed. A researcher-made questionnaire was used to determine validation of job competencies. The questionnaire included 41 general competency indexes and 29 professional competency indexes. Importance of each index was valued according to score of 1 to 10. Finally, based on validation stage, the framework of qualified employment competencies for Bachelor's degree in educational sciences was determined.

 

 

 

 

3. Results

 

   In order to identify Iranian and foreign models of employment competencies, the previous studies and research were investigated. In this way, the components of job competencies were identified according to opinions of 28 specialists and different organizations (Table 1). Therefore, a list of 60 components was extracted for job competence.

 

Table 1

Components of employment competencies according to research literature

List of job competencies

Team work, individual communication, self-management, (Institute ofKeratrz, 1999 ;Michel et al. 2010, Cryo et al. 2015, Kakaliro et al. 2102, Tijiiro et al. 2013, 1997, Jim Youden 2012, Shafei and Nayan 2010,Momeni Mahmoee, et al 2012, Pouratashi ,2018), Business development skills, knowledge, learning, program-planning, ability, (Andrews and Hitson, 2008; Rabtom ,1995, National Park Service ,2004, Drisco ,2014, Pristine , 1964, Gonzalez and Wagnar ,2006, Wooddrov ,1993, Benton et al. 2007, Damet 2005), professional knowledge (Garcia et al. 2004, Garcia and Vander van der Velden 2008, Alan and Vander van der Velden 2011, Ronno Z and Vira ,2009), Problem solving (Tahmasebi et al. 2010, Aghapour et al. 2013, Bahrami 2015), participation, information (ROEs and Vira 2009, Kashkiro et al. 2102, Tijiiro et al. 2013, Jim Yden 2012), Creativity (Rtom Voab 1995, Tahmasebi et al. 2010, Bahrami 2016), confidence (Andrews and Haigson 2008, Jim Yden 2012, Bala 2005), general, physical capacity, social (Garcia et al. 2004, Garcia and Vander van der Velden 2008, Rovz and Vira 2009), decision making (Cryo et al. 2015, Tijiiro et al. 2013, Fei 1997), Values (Drisco 2014, Benton et al. 2007), organizing a special task (Wooddrov 1993, Tijiiro et al. 2013), creating Team Motivation (Vdrv 1993, Tijiiro et al. 2013), Time management (Michel et al. 2010, Fei 1997), Educational technology (Benton et al. 2007, Momeni Mahmoee, et al 2012), organizing, emotional, methodology, program law (Garcia et al. 2004), Sensitivity (Rtom Voab 1995, Communication Ethics (Michel et al. 2010), knowledge management, flexibility, mobilization of human Resources (Allen & Vander van der Velden 2011), Attitude (Damgol et al. 2005), theoretical, practical (ROEs and Vira 2009), cognitive method (Rickelov and Perez 2013), personal development, multicultural, educational skill, programming, administration and Management (Jim Youden 2012), self-motivation, leadership, conflict management, staff management (Cryo et al. 2015), foreign language proficiency, writing skills, service to customers, tendency to success, coordination and construction (Karmand Chiiro et al. 2102), instrumental, Systematic (Gonzalez & Wagnar 2006), Compliance with laws ( Wooddrov 1993)), analysis and composition, production of new ideas, accountability (Tijiiro et al. 2013), academic skill Aghapour et al 2013), Risk, autonomy Bahrami, 2015)

 

 

           In the above table, the competencies extracted from the literature are sorted by frequency respectively. By examining frequency of each competency, it was clear that competences like teamwork, communication, business development, knowledge, expertise, learning, planning, ability, personal characteristics, problem solving, self-management, participation and information skills have been emphasized.

 

             In the second stage, to identify and assess competencies of bachelor's degree in educational sciences in Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and Tartus University of Syria, a semi-structured with the professors of these universities indicated 41 indicators for general competences and 29 professional competency indicators. Most of interviewees referred to two dimensions of general and professional competencies in the expression of different concepts. For example, one of the interviewees stated that:

 

"Teacher needs a special series of competencies. For example, collaborative work competency is more important component for headmaster compare to teachers “.

 

            In fact, for teacher job, we need general and professional competencies. General competencies such as self-confidence, accountability, positive attitude to education and man, ability to communicate, time management, ability to participate with others, professional ethics, mental and physical health. Professional skills can include educational design, lesson plan, classroom management, mastery of teaching methods, use of educational technology, evaluation power, and motivation in students. Some interviewees believed that a Bachelor of Science in Education must have a series of competencies and skills. For example, most of the interviewee stated that:

 

 “A series of individual capabilities should be created at the student. He must obtain a collection of information and knowledge in relation to his own field. It is also a series of social skills that show how he interacts with others. He must be able to have a spirit of tolerance, compassion and kindness.  The student of educational sciences must achieve a series of intellectual capabilities and capabilities; for example, power of thought and deep reflection, power of analysis of scientific and non-scientific topics, and power of critical thinking. In addition, He must have philosophical thinking, which is a flexible, holistic, and profound mind. He must be an aware citizen, politically sensitive to society's issues, and have scientific and ethical competences”.

 

 

 

   Table 2

   Coding results of categories of job competencies according to interviewees opinion

Integration Competencies

Core Competencies

 

Systemic thinking, problem solving and decision making, creativity, critical thinking, philosophical thinking,

Intellectual skills

 

Writing skills, empathy sense, verbal communication skills, communication with teachers, communication with the parent association, communication with the students, having a interdisciplinary morale, child relationship skills, community relationship, teamwork

Interpersonal skill (communication)

 

Emotional competence, emotional competence, professional ethics, human competence, conflict management, motivation in students, management and leadership of school, organizational strength, classroom management

Leadership

 

Time management, skill of expression technology, courage, honesty and truthfulness, adherence to ethical principles, self-consciousness, flexibility, responsibility, mental health, physical health, auto-confidence, persistence, tolerance, being oriented, dedication, research ability and research skills, risk, the ability to implement science in practice, national identity

 

Individual

 

Philosophical foundations, psychological foundations, theoretical foundations, knowledge-based, recognition of high-precision documents, recognition of education system, accurate knowledge of the school (Environment), educational management knowledge, scientific competence, specialized language proficiency, sufficient knowledge of the education system of other countries, the ethical principles of teaching

Specialized knowledge

 

Needs assessment, assessment and evaluation of students, using evaluation models, assessment of academic achievement, the measurement of communication power of individuals

Educational evaluation

 

The competency of working with children, educational counseling, consulting with teachers in the field of teaching, child psychology, exceptional children education, counseling in the field of teaching and learning activities

Psychological skills

Educational Technology, familiarity with new methods of teaching, computer proficiency

Technology

 

Curriculum design, curriculum development, lesson plan, classroom design, educational technology design, test design, art education, artistic activities competence

Curriculum

 

            Finally, according to the previous steps, a list of 80 of job-related competency index was identified in an interview with specialists of Educational Sciences.  In this study, attitudes and viewpoints of teachers in two parts of general and specialized job competencies were studied, which are separately referred to each of its categories and sub-categories.

 

General competencies of employment

 

General competencies of a Bachelor of Educational Sciences from opinions of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and Tartus of Syria’s teachers including 4 categories: intellectual, interpersonal (communication), leadership and individual skills (Table 2).

 

  • Intellectual skills: one of general competences of Educational Sciences’ student is intellectual skills that include systemic thinking, problem solving and decision making, creativity, critical thinking and philosophical thinking.
  • Interpersonal skills: Another general competence of Educational Sciences’ student is interpersonal skills which including writing skills, empathy sense, verbal communication skills, communication with teachers, communication with the parent association, communication with the students, interdisciplinary morale, child relationship skills, community communication, teamwork, effective communication with colleagues.
  • Leadership skill: one of general competences of Educational Sciences’ student is leadership skills like emotional competence, professional ethics, human competence, conflict management, motivation in students, ability to control the class, management and leadership of school, organizational strength, and classroom management.
  • Personal skill: Another general competence of Educational Sciences’ student is individual skills, including time management, express fan skill, courage, honesty and truthfulness, adherence to ethical principles, self-consciousness, flexibility being able, being responsible, mental health, physical health, self-confidence, perseverance, the ability to implement, be oriented, be the dedication, risk-effectiveness, the capability of implementing science in practice, national identity, the ability to research and Research skills.

 

 

 

 

 

Table 3

List of general job competence in terms of specialists in Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and Tartus of Syria

Integration Competencies

Core Competencies

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

General Competencies

Systemic thinking, problem solving and decision making, creativity, critical thinking, philosophical thinking,

Intellectual skills

 

Writing skills, empathy sense, verbal communication skills, communication with teachers, communication with the parent association, communication with the students, having a interdisciplinary morale, child relationship skills, community relationship, teamwork

Interpersonal skill (communication)

 

Emotional competence, emotional competence, professional ethics, human competence, conflict management, motivation in students, management and leadership of school, organizational strength, classroom management

Leadership

 

Time management, skill of expression technology, courage, honesty and truthfulness, adherence to ethical principles, self-consciousness, flexibility, responsibility, mental health, physical health, auto-confidence, persistence, tolerance, being oriented, dedication, research ability and research skills, risk, the ability to implement science in practice, national identity

 

Individual

 

 

Professional Competencies

 

         Professional competencies of a Bachelor degree in Educational Sciences from opinion of teachers at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and Tartus of Syria include 5 categories, i.e. educational evaluation, psychology skills, technology skills, curriculum and specialized knowledge:

 

Educational Evaluation: One of professional competences of Educational Sciences’ student is educational evaluation. These skills are needs assessment, assessment and evaluation of students, using evaluation models, assessment of academic achievement, and measurement of communication power of individuals.

 

  • Psychological Skills: Another professional competence of educational sciences’ student is psychological skills. These skills are working with children, educational counseling, consulting with teachers in the field of teaching, child psychology, exceptional children education, and counseling in the field of teaching and learning activities.

 

  • Technological Skills: One of professional competences of Educational Sciences’ student is technological skills. These skills are technology education, familiarity with new methods of teaching, computer proficiency.

 

  • Curriculum Skills: Another professional competence of educational sciences’ student is curriculum skills. These skills are curriculum design, curriculum development, lesson plan, classroom design, educational technology design, test design, art education, and artistic activities competence.

 

  • Specialized knowledge Skills: One of professional competences of Educational Sciences’ student is specialized knowledge skills. These skills are philosophical foundations, psychological foundations, theoretical foundations, knowledge-based, recognition of high-precision documents, recognition of education system, accurate knowledge of the school (Environment), educational management knowledge, scientific competence, specialized language proficiency, sufficient knowledge of the education system of other countries, the ethical principles of teaching.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 4

List of professional job competence in terms of specialists in Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and Tartus of Syria

Philosophical foundations, psychological foundations, theoretical foundations, knowledge-based, recognition of high-precision documents, recognition of education system, accurate knowledge of the school (Environment), educational management knowledge, scientific competence, specialized language proficiency, sufficient knowledge of the education system of other countries, the ethical principles of teaching

Specialized knowledge

 

Needs assessment, assessment and evaluation of students, using evaluation models, assessment of academic achievement, the measurement of communication power of individuals

Educational evaluation

 

The competency of working with children, educational counseling, consulting with teachers in the field of teaching, child psychology, exceptional children education, counseling in the field of teaching and learning activities

Psychological skills

Educational Technology, familiarity with new methods of teaching, computer proficiency

Technology

 

Curriculum design, curriculum development, lesson plan, classroom design, educational technology design, test design, art education, artistic activities competence

Curriculum

 

 

             For the validation of job competencies a researcher-made questionnaire was used. Then, in order to determine priority of each component and their indices, one sample T-Test was used and cut point of 5.7 was determined according to the experts ' opinions. The results of test analysis are stated in Table 5. The results according to opinions of faculty members of Ferdowsi University show that most indicators can be viewed as a general competences of educational sciences’ students, except these indicators: Risk-taking with mean 50.7 (Sig 1), relationship with the parent association with mean 40.7 (Sig 0.792), organizational strength with mean 63.7 (Sig 0.606), philosophical thinking with mean 73.7 (Sig 0.423), relationship with knowledge students with mean 93.7 (Sig 0.268), interdisciplinary morale with mean 80.7 (Sig 0.258), relationship with children with mean 90.7 (Sig 0.165) and courage with mean 30.8 (Sig 0.53).

 

           Also, The results according to opinions of faculty members of Tartus University, Syria show that most indicators can be viewed as a general competences of educational sciences’ students, except these indicators: self-devotion with mean 73.7 (0.789), risk-taking with mean 93.6 ( 0.365), sense of empathy with mean 13.8 (0.364), philosophical thinking with mean 8 (0. 341), conflict management with mean 13.8 (0.126), emotional and emotional competency with mean 33.8 (0.108), effective communication with mean 26.8 ( 0.097), organizational strength mean 66.8 ( 0.075).

 

Table 5

Result of one-sample T-Test of general competencies of employment of Educational Sciences in Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and Tartus University, Syria

Ferdowsi University of Mashhad

General Competencies

Tartus Universit

Sig

Mean

Sig

Mean

0.000

8.80

Systemic thinking

0.000

9.40

0.000

9.23

Problem solving and

decision-making

0.000

9.60

0.000

9.13

Creativity

0.000

9.66

0.000

9.03

Critical Thinking

0.000

9.46

0.423

7.73

Philosophical thinking

0.341

8

0.007

8.33

Writing skill

0.000

9.40

0.000

8.43

Sense of empathy

0.364

8.13

0.000

9.06

Verbal communication Skills

0.000

9.53

0.025

8.36

Contact with teachers

0.000

9.13

0.792

7.40

Contact with PTA

0.000

9

0.268

7.93

Contact with students

0.000

9.86

0.258

7.80

Interdisciplinary morale

0.126

8.13

0.165

7.90

Child relationship Skills

0.000

9.86

0.000

8.53

Contact the Community

0.000

9.20

0.000

8.90

Teamwork

0.000

9.73

0.000

8.86

Interact effectively with colleagues

0.097

8.26

0.000

8.56

Emotional and emotional competence

0.108

8.33

0.000

9.16

Professional ethics

0.000

9.80

0.011

8.13

Conflict management

0.284

8.13

0.033

8.36

Motivate students

0.000

9.53

0.025

8.36

School Management and Leadership

0.029

8.80

0.606

7.63

Organizational Power

0.000

8.66

0.010

8.50

Classroom Management and control

0.000

9.86

0.000

8.63

Time Management

0.000

9.86

0.000

9

Fan Express

0.000

9.46

0.053

8.30

Courage

0.029

8.53

0.000

8.83

Honesty and truthfulness

0.000

9.60

0.000

9.16

Self-awareness

0.000

9.46

0.000

8.80

Flexibility

0.000

9.53

0.000

9.03

Being responsible

0.000

9.66

0.000

9.36

Mental health

0.000

9.40

0.001

8.50

Physical health

0.004

8.73

0.000

8.80

Confidence

0.000

9.93

0.006

8.56

Perseverance

0.001

8.93

0.000

8.63

Tolerance

0.000

9.86

0.004

8.33

Extroverted

0.000

9.60

0.032

8.30

Being oriented

Of devotion

0.789

7.73

0.000

8.73

Research

0.000

9.86

1

7.50

Risk Disclosure

0.365

6.93

0.000

8.66

Implementation of science in practice

0.000

9.80

0.030

8.36

National identity

0.000

9.93

 

 

         Also, results according to opinions of faculty members of Ferdowsi University show that most indicators can be viewed as professional competences of educational sciences’ students, except these indicators: Knowledge of philosophical foundations with mean 63.7 (0.689), education of exceptional children with mean 10.7 (0.271), performing artistic activities with mean 96.7 (0.142), proficiency in English specialized with mean 13.8 (0.53) and art education with mean 50.7 (1).  Also, results according to opinions of faculty members of Tartus University, Syria show that most indicators can be viewed as a professional competences of educational sciences’ students, except these indicators:  Recognizing the educational system of other countries with mean 8.06 ( 0.209), artistic activities with mean 20.8 (0.175).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 6

Result of one-sample T-Test in specialized competencies of educational sciences in Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and Syria

Ferdowsi University of Mashhad

Professional Competencies

Tartus Universit

Sig

Mean

Sig

Mean

0.000

7.63

Understanding Philosophical Foundations

0.001

9.13

0.000

8.46

Recognition of psychological foundations

0.000

9.53

0.000

8.50

Understanding Theoretical foundations

0.001

9.26

0.000

8.53

Recognition of high-manual documents

0.001

9.13

0.423

8.76

Recognition of education system

0.000

9.46

0.007

8.56

Having a knowledge-based spirit

0.000

9.73

0.000

8.63

Recognition of school environment

0.000

9.86

0.000

8.23

Educational Management Knowledge

0.000

9.46

0.025

8.13

Fluent in English

0.000

8.80

0.792

8.16

Recognizing teaching system of other countries

0.209

8.06

0.268

8.56

Curriculum Design

0.000

9.40

0.258

7.50

Art Education

0.009

8.73

0.165

8.60

Curriculum vitae

0.000

9.20

0.000

8.93

Lesson Plan

0.000

9.80

0.000

8.63

Class space Design

0.000

9.80

0.000

8.73

Design of educational assistance facilities

0.000

9.60

0.000

8.63

Test design

0.000

9.93

0.000

7.96

Art activities

0.175

8.20

0.011

9.06

Educational Technology Application

0.000

9.93

0.033

9.13

New methods of teaching

0.000

9.93

0.025

8.70

Work with a child

0.000

9.66

0.606

8.33

Educational Consultancy

0.000

9.46

0.010

8.53

Consulting with teachers in the field of teaching

0.000

9.33

0.000

8.30

Child Psychology

0.000

9.80

0.000

8.50

Counseling in teaching and learning activities

0.000

9.40

0.053

7.10

Education of exceptional children

0.002

9.06

0.000

8.50

Needs assessment

0.000

9.80

0.000

9.10

Assessment and evaluation of students

0.000

9.73

0.000

9.20

Educational evaluation

0.000

9.86

 

Finally, a framework of competencies of employment requirements was designed with the Bachelor of Education in the University of Iran and Syria (Fig. 1).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Employment competencies

General qualifications

Specialized competencies

Psychology

Curriculum

Professional knowledge

Technology

Assessment

Evaluation

Assessment

Assessment and evaluation

Educational technology

Counseling

New teaching methods

Child Psychology

Work with a child

Consulting with teachers

Curriculum design

Curriculum

Test design

Theoretical Foundations

Educational management knowledge

Psychological foundations

Intellectual

Communicational

Leadership

Individual

Systematic thinking

Critical Thinking

Creativity

Teamwork

Verbal communication

Writing skills

Problem Solving

Communication with teachers

Communication with the community

Time Management

Flexibility

Rhetorical

Honesty

Self-awareness

School management

Professional ethics

Class managementدرس

Motivating

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 1. Model of employment competence in Iran and Syria

 

      The results of study about general competencies of employment indicated that at the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and in components of individual skill such as courage index and in interpersonal component (communication), indices like child relationship indices, communication with parent association have not received sufficient attention. Also, in the University of Tartus, Syria and in component of individual skills same as sacrifice and components of skill to communicate indicators of effective relationship with colleagues and empathy, and in the component of leadership, emotional competency and conflict management indexes has not received sufficient attention.

 

          The results of study about professional competencies of employability showed that in Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, in the component of specialized knowledge, the indicators of knowledge of philosophical principles and skill at specialized language have not been given much importance. Also, at the University of Tartus in Syria, the recognition of educational system of other countries is not valued enough. In addition, result showed that in Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and in component of psychological skills, the exceptional children's education index has received less attention. In a general conclusion, it can be stated that there are similarities between Ferdowsi and Tartus universities in general competencies section of intellectual skills and there are differences in the components of individual, communication and leadership components. There are also similarities between two universities in components of academic evaluation, curriculum and technology, and differences in components of psychology and specialized knowledge.

 

4. Conclusion

 

        The goal of job competencies in higher education system is effective practice of skills in work. The aim of present study was to investigate competencies of educational sciences in the field of educational sciences in two universities of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and Tartus University of Syria. In order to accomplish this goal, interviews were conducted in the field of employment competencies with teachers of educational sciences in both universities. Then, the interviews were coded and analyzed using MAXQDA software. The findings showed that competencies of employment in the Bachelor degree of Educational Sciences in both universities are divided into two parts of general and professional competencies.

 

        There is similarity between present research findings with research of Wooddrov (1993) and Gonzalez and Wagnar (2006) dividing competencies to two main groups of general and professional competencies. Each of these competencies is also divided into different categories and subcategories. General competency includes four categories: intellectual, interpersonal, leadership and personal skills and professional competencies including five categories namely educational evaluation, psychology skills, technology skills, curriculum and specialized knowledge. Findings of research support research results of Michel et al. (2010), Cryo et al. (2015), Kashkiro et al. (2102), Tijiiro et al. (2013), Fei (1997), Jim Youden (2012), Shafei and Nayan(2010), Momeni et al (2012), Pouratashi (2018), Andrews and Haigson (2008), National Park Service (2004), Drisco (2014), Allen and Vander van der Velden (2011), Tahmasebi et al. (2010), Garcia et al. (2004), Garcia and Vder van der Velden (2008), Rovz and Vira (2009), Aghapour et al. (2013), Bahrami (2015), Rabtom Voab (1995), Balakrishan (2005) with regards to different categories and subcategories of general and professional competencies.

 

          Graduates of educational sciences can experience a variety of occupations, such as teacher and training expert in human resources development section of organizations. Certainly, success of graduates depends on a series of general and professional competencies.  This study attempted to answer requires knowledge of educational sciences’ students to be succeed in work. Based on research findings, these competencies are divided to two categories. A bunch of these competencies are professional competencies that should be done in the field of educational sciences based on status and duties of students at work. The practical activities of each teacher in the class must have clear theoretical foundations. These theoretical foundations have led to depth of teacher's activities in the scene. Therefore, teacher must have skills of principles of psychological, theoretical foundations and philosophical foundations of consciousness. On the other hand, since teachers as curriculum anchors are in the position of hand to change and design of program at a micro level, they should be able to establish a conceptual relationship with curriculum designers to succeed in the field of action. 

 

            Knowing topics such as curriculum planning, lesson plan is necessary for them, especially in the design of the test, because each teacher duties is responsible for measuring students ' academic achievement. On the other hand, the advancement of technology has led to a teacher without the use of technology, the interest and needs of learners in the classroom, because students today are more familiar with technology and information technology. The application of technology in the teaching process can increase the level of learners ' satisfaction and facilitate educational processes. Also, communication and psychological skills are necessary for teaching work. The most important aspect of each teacher's activity is interactive activities with students and their parents and even teachers. Therefore, topics such as knowledge of child psychology, work with children, and counseling for teacher training have been predicted.

 

          Professional competencies are necessary for success of teacher, but this is not enough because a series of general competencies should be accompanied in order to ensure effective performance of teacher in practice. Individual competencies such as time management, consciousness, self-confidence and psychological features such as self-confidence help teacher know their strengths and weaknesses. Competency, such as time management and flexibility, makes it easier for teachers to plan and make work more successful. One of the other competencies of teachers is leadership skill.

 

          Another competency of teacher is leadership skill. Teachers are classroom leaders. They are the ones who personally lead class when enter classroom, despite the centralized education system in Iran and Syria. Therefore, it seems that competencies such as motivating students, managing classroom and observing principles of professional ethics are very important for any teacher. After all, the teacher must to be able to interact systematically with various elements of class. Teacher interaction with purpose, learning activities, assessment, and external environment are important. The teacher must be able to be creative and have right solutions to the problems face every day. With critical thinking and cultivating it in students, he should try to pave the way for learners’ progress.

 

           The results of one-sample t-test method in SPSS software showed that according to Ferdowsi University professors, most of components of general competence except indicators namely risk, communication with parents' association, organizational power, philosophical thinking, communication with students, morale. Interdisciplinary skills, communication skills with children and courage are important general competencies in the field of employment among students of educational sciences at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Also, according to the professors of Tartus University in Syria, most of the indicators of the components of general competence, except indicators like self-sacrifice, risk-taking, empathy, philosophical thinking, conflict management, interdisciplinary spirit, emotional and emotional competence, effective communication. Together with colleagues and organizational power, they are considered to be the most important general competencies in the field of employment among students of educational sciences at Tartus University in Syria.

 

          In a general conclusion, it can be stated that employability competencies in the dimension of general competencies in both universities are same in component of intellectual skill, but there are different in the components of individual skill, communication skill and leadership skill component. Also, the results of T-method showed a single sample in relation to specialized competencies. According to professors of Ferdowsi University, most of the indicators of component of professional competence are important qualifications for student employment, except indicators such as knowledge of philosophical principles, education of exceptional children, Art activities, English language proficiency, and art education. According to the professors of Tartus University in Syria, most of indicators of component of professional competence are important, except the indicators of knowledge of education system of other countries and performing artistic activities. In fact, it can be stated that employment competencies in terms of professional competencies in two universities are different between components of psychological, curriculum, specialized knowledge skills, educational evaluation skills and there is no difference in technology skills. In addition to general and professional competencies in this field, it should also pay attention to equipping its graduates in order to equip its graduates with knowledge and skills.

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