A Comparative Study of Extracurricular Activities in Teacher Education Systems of Australia, Germany and the United States: Lessons for Iran

Document Type: Original Article


1 Educational Sciences, Faculty, Farhangian University, Rasht, Iran

2 Faculty, Farhangian University, Tehran, Iran


This study aims to investigate the experiences of extracurricular activities in the teacher education systems of Australia, Germany, and the United States in order to provide suggestions for educational and curriculum policy makers in the Iranian Teacher Education System. This is a qualitative, non-experimental, applied, comparative study in terms of nature, variable control level, purpose, and method, respectively. It uses George Bereday's four-step approach and similarity and difference design based on John Stuart Mill's Method of Agreement and Difference. This is a macro study in terms of unit of observation, conducted using the selective sampling method with "limited variables, small N" and the selection strategy of “different systems, similar results". Findings indicated that the selected countries emphasized the cultural and social goals of the extra-curricular activities. Also, the various functions of these activities were mainly directed towards cultural identity, social cohesion and professional development. There were similarities and differences among the selected countries in terms of the scope of extracurricular activities. According to the findings, educational planners of Iran at the Teacher Education University and the Ministry of Education should consider that extracurricular activities are one of the most appropriate, attractive and indirect methods for educating the younger generation of teachers.


Main Subjects

Article Title [Persian]

بررسی تطبیقی فعالیت های فوق برنامه درتربیت معلم استرالیا ،آلمان و ایالات متحده امریکا: درس هائی برای ایران

Authors [Persian]

  • پری مو سی پور میاندهی 1
  • اشرف السادات پیرو نذیری 1
  • خدیجه گلین مقدم 2
1 علوم تربیتی،هیات علمی ،دانشگاه فرهنگیان،رشت،ایران
2 دانشگاه فرهنگیان،تهران،ایران
Abstract [Persian]

هدف پژوهش حاضر مطالعه تجارب موجود در خصوص فعالیت های فوق برنامه در نظام تربیت معلم کشورهای استرالیا،آلمان و ایالات متحده آمریکا جهت ارائه پیشنهادهایی برای سیاست گزاران آموزشی و درسی نظام تربیت معلم ایران است. پژوهش حاضر از نظر ماهیت از نوع پژوهش های کیفی ، از نظر میزان کنترل متغیرها از نوع غیر آزمایشی ، از نظر هدف در زمره پژوهش های کاربردی و از جهت روش ، تطبیقی می باشد که با استفاده از رویکرد چهار مرحله ای جورج بردی و طراحی تشابه ها و تفاوت ها بر اساس روش توافق و تفاوت جان استوارت میل صورت پذیرفته است. تحقیق حاضر از لحاظ واحد مشاهده ، جزو پژوهش های کلان ، شیوه نمونه گیری آگاهانه وانتخابی با " n کوچک با متغیر محدود" واستراتژی انتخاب محقق، " استراتژی نظام های متفاوت ، نتایج یکسان " می باشد. یافته های تحقیق نشان می دهند که از لحاظ هدف کشورهای منتخب به اهداف فرهنگی و اجتماعی فعالیت های فوق برنامه توجه داشته اند. هم چنین کارکردهای گوناگون این فعالیت ها عمدتا متوجه اموری همچون هویت فرهنگی ، انسجام اجتماعی ، و توسعه حرفه ای است. از بعد گستره ، شباهت ها و تفاوت هایی بین کشورهای منتخب مشاهده می گردد. با توجه به یافته ها ، توجه برنامه ریزان آموزشی دانشگاه فرهنگیان و وزارت آموزش وپرورش باید به این نکته معطوف گردد که فعالیت های فوق برنامه یکی از بهترین ، جذاب ترین و غیرمستقیم ترین روش های پرورش تربیت نسل جوان معلمان است.

Keywords [Persian]

  • فعالیت های فوق برنامه
  • تربیت معلم
  • تطبیق
  • استرالیا
  • آلمان
  • آمریکا
Ahmadi, G. A. ImamJomee, S. M. R. and Timurneya, M. 2013.  A Comparative Study of School Extracurricular Activities in Iran , the United States, United Kingdom and Malaysia, Curriculum Research Journal, 3(1):65-91, [in Farsi]

Astiz, M. F. Wiseman, A. W. and Baker, D. P. 2002.  "Slouching Towards Decentralization: Consequences of Globalization for Curricular Control in National Education Systems," Comparative Education Review, 46(1): 66-88

Baker. C, N. 2008: Under-represented College Students and Extracurricular Involvement: The Effects of Various Student Organizations on Academic Performance. Social Psychology of Education, 11(3): 273–298.

Barnett, L. 2007. “Winners” and “losers”: The Effects of Being Allowed or Denied Entry into Competitive Extracurricular Activities. Journal of Leisure Research, 39:316-341.

Bray, M., Adamson, B., & Mason, M. 2007. Comparative Education Research: Approaches and Methods, China: The University of Hong Kong, CERC Studies in Comparative Education.

Chia, Y. M. 2005. Job Offers of Multi-national Accounting Firms: The Effects of Emotional Intelligence, Extra-curricular Activities, and Academic Performance. Accounting Education: An International Journal, 14(1):75–93.

Church R. L. and Sedlak M. 1976. Education in the United States: An Interpretive History, New York: the Free Press.

Collinson, V. & Ono, Y. 2001. The Professional Development of Teachers in the United States and Japan, European Journal of Teacher Education, 24(2):223-48.

Darling, N. & Caldwell, L.L. 2005: Participation in School-Based Extracurricular Activities and Adolescent Adjustment, Journal of Leisure Research, 31(1): 51-76.

European Union, 2018. Education and Training Monitor 2018 , European Commission’s Directorate-General for Education, Youth, Sport and Culture (DG EAC) & Directorate-General for Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion and the Eurydice Network, Available at : https://ec.europa.eu/education/sites/education/files/document-library-docs/volume-2-2018-education-and-training-monitor-country-analysis.pdf

Fretell, K. E. 1980. Extracurricular activities in secondary Schools, Columbia University


Fujita, K. 2006: The Effects of Extracurricular Activities on the Academic Performance of Junior High Students. Undergraduate Research Journal for the Human Sciences, Available at: http://www.kon.org/urc/v5/fujita.html

Khanifar, H. 2018. Admission Capacity of Farhangian University in 2018. Moshaver Group, Aug. 6, Available at: https://moshavergroup.com/, [in Farsi]

Keser, F., Akar, H. & Yildirim, A. (2011): The Role of Extracurricular Activities in Active Citizenship Education, Journal of Curriculum Studies, 43(6): 809-837

Klein. M.F. 1991. A Conceptual Framework for Curriculum Decision Making, In M. Klein, (Ed), The Politics of Curriculum Decision Making-Issues in Centralizing the Curriculum, New York: State University of New York.

Ling L, M. 2017. Australian Teacher Education: Inside-out, Outside-in, Backwards and Forwards? European Journal of Teacher Education, 40(5): 561-571

Madandar Arani, A & Kakia, L. 2010. A Glance at Teacher Education in Iran, In K.G.Karras and C.C.Wolhuter, International Handbook on Teacher Education Worldwide, II, Greece: Atrapos Editions

Madandar Arani, A & Kakia, L. 2014. Comparative Education: New Perspectives, Tehran: Aieezh, [in Farsi]

Massoni, E. 2011. Positive Effects of Extra Curricular Activities on Students," ESSAI: 9, Article 27. Available at: https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/10676858.pdf

Mullis, I. V. S., Martin, M. O., Goh, S., & Cotter, K. 2016. TIMSS 2015 Encyclopedia: Education Policy and Curriculum in Mathematics and Science, Retrieved from: http://timssandpirls.bc.edu/timss2015/encyclopedia/

Muscalu, E & Dumitrascu, O. 2014. Determination of Students’ Satisfaction Regarding Extracurricular Activities Conducted in the University: Comparative Study Romania-Germany, Procedia Economics and Finance, 16:568 – 574

Nairami, M and RahimiRad, H. 2013. Pathology and Quality Control Strategies for Implementation of Curricula with a Sustainable Growth and Development Approach, paper presented at 2nd National Conference on Sustainable Development, Arak: Islamic Azad University of Arak, 3-4 March

National Multicultural Advisory Council, 1999.  Australian Multiculturalism for a New Century: Towards Inclusiveness, NMAC, Canberra, vol. 1, Appendix, p. 103, DIAC website, viewed 22 July 2018, http://www.immi.gov.au/media/publications/multicultural/nmac/report.pdf


Nelson, I. T., V. P. Vendrzyk, J. J. Quirin, and R. D. Allen. 2002. No, the Sky is not Falling: Evidence of Accounting Student Characteristics at FSA Schools, 1995-2000. Issues in Accounting Education, 17(3) 269-287.

Reva, A. 2012. The Role of Extracurricular Activities in Foreign Language Learning in University Settings,  Department of Languages and Linguistics , University of Saskatchewan, Available at :https://ecommons.usask.ca/bitstream/handle/10388/ETD-2012.../REVA-THESIS.pdf?...

Rubin, R.S., Bommer, W.H., & Baldwin, T.T. 2002. Using Extracurricular Activity as an Indicator of Interpersonal Skill: Prudent Evaluation or Recruiting Malpractice? Human Resource Management, (41): 441–454.

Shamshiri, B. 2008. Camp Activities in Nature, Missing Circle of Education in Iran, Proceedings of the First Informal Education and Learning Conference, Ferdowsi University, 20-22 July, [in Farsi]

Staddon, E., & Standish, P. 2012. Improving the Student Experience, Journal of Philosophy of Education, 46(4): 631-648

Taheri., M. Arefi., M. Pardakhtchi., M.H. & Gahramani, M. 2013. Investigate Teachers' Perceptions and Attitudes towards Various Aspects of Professional Development Were Provided in Teacher Training College, Quarterly Journal of Career & Organizational Counseling, 5(15): 26-56, [in Farsi].

University of Queensland, 2012. Strategic blueprint for support of technology-enhanced learning. Retrieved from http://ceit.uq.edu.au/content/uq-elearning-strategic-plan.

World Bank .2019. Australia: GDP ranking" World Bank Open Data, Retrieved from: https://data.worldbank.org/country/australia