A Comparative Study on the Position of Formal Education System of Islamic Republic of Iran among its Neighboring Countries

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 lorestan university

2 Assistant Prof. Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University

3 PhD Student, Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch

Abstract

This study aims to compare the position of the formal education system of the Islamic Republic of Iran with those of neighboring countries. This is a comparative quantitative study, in which the statistical population was analyzed at the world regions/continents level based on the Bray and Thomas cube. The research sample consisted of Iran and 13 neighboring countries. There were six education indices classified generally as student, human resources, environment and equipment, financial, outcome, and qualitative groups with 20 micro indices. The information was collected by analyzing documents, contents of reports, and citable references such as international data-banks, official websites of the Ministry of Education, and governmental sources and reports as well as those of research institutions and the mass media. Regarding the fulfillment percentage of education indices, the research findings indicate that Iran was ranked seventh among neighboring countries. Among seven Arab countries except for Iraq, countries on the southern border of the Persian Gulf were ranked from first to six; thus, they outstripped Iran and other neighboring countries. According to other research findings, Iran was ranked below fifth in seven indices, compared with 13 neighboring countries, and between sixth and tenth in 11 indices. Iran was ranked third in apparent intake ratio, first in actual intake ratio, and second in the ratio of technical and vocational students to the entire students.

Keywords

Main Subjects


Article Title [Persian]

بررسی جایگاه نظام آموزش وپرورش رسمی ایران در بین کشورهای همسایه با توجه به نشانگرهای آموزشی

Authors [Persian]

  • عباس معدن دار آرانی 1
  • مهدی نوید 2
  • مجید رعنایی 3
1 استادیار دانشگاه لرستان
2 استادیار دانشگاه رجایی
3 دانشجوی دکتری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تهران مرکز
Abstract [Persian]

هدف از این مطالعه ، تطبیق جایگاه نظام آموزش رسمی جمهوری اسلامی ایران با جایگاه کشورهای همسایه است. جامعه آماری پژوهش در سطح مناطق/ قاره های جهان بر اساس مکعب بری و توماس و نمونه شامل ایران و 13 کشور همسایه می گردد. برای تعیین جایگاه کشورهای مورد مطالعه از شش گروه کلی نشانگرهای آموزشی تحت عنوان نشانگرهای دانش آموزی ، نیروی انسانی ، محیط و تجهیزات ، مالی ، برون دادی و کیفی با 20 خرده شاخص استفاده شد. اطلاعات لازم ازطریق تحلیل اسناد ، گزارش منابع رسمی از قبیل بانک های اطلاعاتی بین المللی ، وب سایت های رسمی وزارت آموزش و پرورش ، گزارش های دولتی و همچنین پژوهش های مؤسسات تحقیقاتی و رسانه های جمعی جمع آوری شده است. با توجه به درصد تحقق کلیه نشانگرهای آموزشی ، یافته های تحقیق نشان می دهند که ایران در بین کشورهای همسایه در رتبه هفتم قرار گرفته است. در بین هفت کشور عربی به جز عراق ، کشورهایی که در مرز جنوبی خلیج فارس قرار دارند رتبه های اول تا ششم را کسب و از ایران و سایر کشورهای همسایه پیشی گرفته اند. براساس سایر یافته های تحقیق ، ایران در مقایسه با 13 کشور همسایه در 7 نشانگر رتبه کمتر از 5 و در 11 نشانگر رتبه بین ششم تا دهم را کسب کرده است. ایران در نشانگر پوشش تحصیلی ظاهری حائز رتبه سوم ، در نشانگر پوشش تحصیلی واقعی رتبه اول و در نسبت دانش آموزان فنی و حرفه ای به کل دانش آموزان حائز رتبه دوم شد. همچنین از لحاظ تعداد معلمان دارای صلاحیت به کل معلمان با آذربایجان و امارات متحده عربی به طور مشترک حائز مقام اول ، از لحاظ سهم بودجه آموزش از بودجه عمومی در رده چهارم و از بعُد نشانگر میزان فارغ التحصیلی دانش آموزان دوره ابتدائی در بین کشورهای همسایه ، حائز رتبه پنجم شده است.

Keywords [Persian]

  • نظام آموزشی رسمی
  • نشانگر های آموزشی
  • کشورهای همسایه
 

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Oman

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 Pakistan

 

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UNESCO, (2014). Browse by Country: Pakistan, Available at : http://uis.unesco.org/en/country/PK

UNESCO. (2015a). Pakistan: education and literacy, available at :  http://uis.unesco.org/en/country/pk?theme=education-and-literacy

UNESCO1, (2015b). Browes by Country :  Pakistan, Paris: UNESCO, Institute of Statistics, Available at:  http://uis.unesco.org/en/country/PK

UNESCO Institute for Statistics, (2016). ICT in education statistics: Shifting from regional reporting to global monitoring: Progress made, challenges encountered, and the way forward, Background paper prepared for the 2016 Global Education Monitoring Report Education for people and planet: Creating sustainable futures for all, Available at : http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002455/245572e.pdf

 

World Bank, (2015). Gross intake ratio to Grade 1 of primary education, female (%), Available at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.GINT.FE.ZS

 

Yusufzal , A. ( 2016 ) .Budget 2016-17: Rs. 84 Bln for Education, Rs. 79.5 Bln for Higher Education, Jun 3, Available at : https://propakistani.pk/2016/06/03/budget-2016-17-rs-84-bln-for-education-rs-79-5-bln-for-higher-education/

 

Qatar

Fas al-Youm, (2014). Teachers' salaries in a group of countries, Fas al-Youm, 9 October: http://fes-today.com/2014/10, [in Arabic]

Knoema, (2015). Qatar Literacy - Adult (15+) literacy rate, Available at: https://knoema.com/atlas/Qatar/topics/Education/Literacy/Adult-literacy-rate

UNDP, (2018). Human Development Indices and Indicators: 2018 Statistical Update Briefing note for countries on the 2018 Statistical Update Qatar, Available at: http://hdr.undp.org/sites/all/themes/hdr_theme/country-notes/QAT.pdf

UNESCO, (2009) .Browse by Country: Qatar, available at: http://uis.unesco.org/country/QA

UNESCO, (2014) .Browse by Country: Qatar, available at: http://uis.unesco.org/country/QA

UNESCO, (2015) .Browse by Country: Qatar, available at: http://uis.unesco.org/country/QA

UNESCO Institute for Statistics, (2016). ICT in education statistics: Shifting from regional reporting to global monitoring: Progress made, challenges encountered, and the way forward, Available at: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002455/245572e.pdf

World Bank, (2009). Percentage of teachers in primary education who are trained, both sexes (%), Available at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.TCAQ.ZS?locations=QA

World Bank, (2015). Percentage of enrolment in secondary education in private institutions, Available at: https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.SEC.PRIV.ZS?locations

 

Saudi Arabia

CITC, (2009). COMPUTER AND INTERNET USAGE IN THE KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA The Communications and Information Technology Commission, Available at: http://www.citc.gov.sa/en/reportsandstudies/studies/Documents/IT%20009%20E%20-%20Computer%20and%20Internet%20Usage%20in%20KSA%202007-2009.pdf

Global Economy, (2008) Saudi Arabia: Public spending on education, percent of GDP, Available at: http://www.theglobaleconomy.com/Saudi-Arabia/Education_spending/

Global Economy, (2013) Saudi Arabia: Trained teachers in primary education, percent of total, Available at: http://www.theglobaleconomy.com/SaudiArabia/Trained_teachers_primary_education/

Global Economy, (2014) Saudi Arabia: Primary school completion rate, Available at: http://www.theglobaleconomy.com/Saudi-Arabia/Primary_school_completion_rate/

Oxford Business Group, (2016). Expanding the role of the private sector in Saudi Arabia's education and training sector, Available at https://www.oxfordbusinessgroup.com/overview/time-change-focus-beginning-shift-towards-expanding-role-private-sector-developing-education

Trading Economics, (2013). Saudi Arabia - Drop-out rate from Grade 1 of primary education, both sexes, Available at: https://tradingeconomics.com/saudi-arabia/drop-out-rate-from-grade-1-of-primary-education-both-sexes-percent-wb-data.html

Trading Economics, (2014). Saudi Arabia - Repeaters in primary education, all grades, both sexes, Available at: https://tradingeconomics.com/saudi-arabia/repeaters-in-primary-education-all-grades-both-sexes-number-wb-data.html

Trading Economics, (2015). Saudi Arabia - Literacy rate, youth total (% of people ages 15-24), Available at: https://tradingeconomics.com/saudi-arabia/literacy-rate-youth-total-percent-of-people-ages-15-24-wb-data.html

UNDP, (2018). Human Development Indices and Indicators: 2018 Statistical Update Briefing note for countries on the 2018 Statistical Update Saudi Arabia, Available at: http://hdr.undp.org/sites/all/themes/hdr_theme/country-notes/SAU.pdf

UNESCO, (2007). Browse by Country: Saudi Arabia, UNESCO Institute of Statistics, Available at: http://uis.unesco.org/country/SA

UNESCO, (2015) . BROWSE BY COUNTRY Saudi Arabia, http://uis.unesco.org/country/SA

Turkey

EPDC, (2014). Turkey: National Education Profile, Available at: Education Policy Data Center, Available at: https://www.epdc.org/sites/default/files/documents/EPDC%20NEP_Turkey.pdf

Gur, B, S. (2016). What Erdogan really wants for education in Turkey: Islamization or Pluralisation, Al Jazeera, Thursday, 17 March, Available at: http://studies.aljazeera.net/en/reports/2016/03/160317094912447.html

Hurriyet Daily News, (2015). OECD: Teachers’ salaries in Turkey below average, ISTANBUL: Hurriyet Daily News, 24 November, Available at:  http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/oecd-teachers-salaries-in-turkey-below-average-.aspx?pageID=238&nID=91608&NewsCatID=341

Knoem, (2015). Turkey - Adult literacy rate, Available at:  https://knoema.com/atlas/Turkey/Adult-literacy-rate

OECD, (2013). EDUCATION POLICY OUTLOOK: TURKEY, Available at:  http://www.oecd.org/edu/EDUCATION%20POLICY%20OUTLOOK%20TURKEY_EN.pdf

OECD, (2016), Education at a Glance: TURKEY, OECD Publishing, Paris, available at:     http://gpseducation.oecd.org/Content/EAGCountryNotes/EAG2016_CN_TUR.pdf

UNDP, (2018). Human Development Indices and Indicators: 2018 Statistical Update Briefing note for countries on the 2018 Statistical Update Turkey, Available at: https://www.undp.org/content/dam/turkey/hdr2018/en/Turkey%20Briefing%20Note.pdf

UNESCO, (2015). Browse by Country: Turkey, Preprimary school enrollment, Available at: http://uis.unesco.org/country/TR

UNESCO Institute for Statistics, (2016(.ICT in education statistics: Shifting from regional reporting to global monitoring: Progress made, challenges encountered, and the way forward, Available at : http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002455/245572e.pdf

World Bank, (2014). Pupil-teacher ratio in primary education (headcount basis), Available at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.ENRL.TC.ZS?locations=UY-TR

World Bank, (2015). Gross enrollment ratio, primary, both sexes (%), Available at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.ENRR?locations=UY-TR

Turkmenistan

Chronicles of Turkmenistan, (2013). Salaries and prices, December 10, Available at: http://en.chrono-tm.org/2013/12/salaries-and-prices/

EPDC, (2013). TURKMENISTAN National Education Profile - a lower middle income country in Europe & Central Asia, Education Policy Data Center, FHI 360's Education Policy and Data Center (EPDC) on July 12, Available at : https://www.epdc.org/sites/default/files/documents/Turkmenistan_NEP_2013.pdf

Global Economy, (2013a).  Turkmenistan: Public spending on education, percent of public spending, Available at:http://www.theglobaleconomy.com/Turkmenistan/Education_spending_percent_of_government_spending/

Global Economy, (2013b).  Turkmenistan: Education spending, percent of GDP, Available at: http://www.theglobaleconomy.com/Turkmenistan/Education_spending

Hays, J. (2016). Education in Turkmenistan: Facts and details, Available at: http://factsanddetails.com/central-asia/Turkmenistan/sub8_7d/entry-4834.html

UNICEF, (2010). Country Profile 2010: Education in Turkmenistan, Available at: https://www.unicef.org/eca/Turkmenistan_2010.pdf

UNICEF, (2017). Turkmenistan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2015-2016, Final Report January, State Committee of Statistics of Turkmenistan, Available at : https://mics-surveys-prod.s3.amazonaws.com/MICS5/Central%20and%20Eastern%20Europe%20and%20the%20Commonwealth%20of%20Independent%20States/Turkmenistan/20152016/Final/Turkmenistan%202015-2016%20MICS_English.pdf

UNESCO, (2014a). Turkmenistan: Preprimary school enrollment, percent of all eligible children, Available at: http://www.theglobaleconomy.com/Turkmenistan/Preprimary_school_enrollment/

UNESCO, (2014b). Turkmenistan - Primary Education - Gross enrolment ratio in primary education, Available at: https://knoema.com/atlas/Turkmenistan/topics/Education/Primary-Education/Gross-enrolment-ratio-in-primary-education

UNESCO, (2014c). Browse by Country: Turkmenistan, Available at: http://uis.unesco.org/country/TM?=undefined&wbdisable=true

UNDP, (2018). Human Development Indices and Indicators: 2018 Statistical Update Briefing note for countries on the 2018 Statistical Update Turkmenistan, Available at: http://hdr.undp.org/sites/all/themes/hdr_theme/country-notes/TKM.pdf

United Arab Emirates

Export Gov., (2016). United Arab Emirates – Education, Washington, D.C. , Available at: https://www.export.gov/article?id=United-Arab-Emirates-Education

Knoema, (2015). United Arab Emirates Literacy - Adult (15+) literacy rate, Available at: https://knoema.com/atlas/United-Arab-Emirates/topics/Education/Literacy/Adult-literacy-rate

Trading Economics, (2014). United Arab Emirates - Percentage of students in secondary education enrolled in vocational programmes, both sexes, Available at: https://tradingeconomics.com/united-arab-emirates/percentage-of-students-in-secondary-education-enrolled-in-vocational-programmes-both-sexes-percent-wb-data.html

Trading Economics, (2015). United Arab Emirates - Pupil-teacher ratio, primary, available at:https://tradingeconomics.com/united-arab-emirates/pupil-teacher-ratio-primary-wb-data.html

UNDP, (2018). Human Development Indices and Indicators: 2018 Statistical Update Briefing note for countries on the 2018 Statistical Update United Arab Emirates, Available at: http://hdr.undp.org/sites/all/themes/hdr_theme/country-notes/ARE.pdf

UNESCO, (2013) .Browse by Country: United Arab Emirates, available at: http://uis.unesco.org/country/AE

UNESCO, (2015) .Browse by Country: United Arab Emirates, available at: http://uis.unesco.org/country/AE

Watt, C. (2012). Education, ICT and OER in the United Arab Emirates, Available at: http://poerup.referata.com/w/images/OER_in_UAE_edited.pdf

World Bank, (2015). Percentage of teachers in primary education who are trained, both sexes (%), Available at: https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.TCAQ.ZS?locations=QA-AE