Education and Culture Crises in the Early Twenty-First Century World


استاد دانشگاه نورث-وست، افریقای جنوبی


The thesis of this paper is that while culture as it appears in the world of the early twenty-first century, is radically different than was the case in all earlier centuries; schools and education systems worldwide still reflect the templates upon which they were built in eras past, and are not aligned with the realities and exigencies of the contemporary world as regards culture.  The paper traces the beginning of schools in the ancient world, and how, according to the Cohen hypothesis, schools began to foist down a uniform, dominant culture. After the creation of mass systems of public schooling, school systems have still been serving as agents of cultural hegemony. However current demographic and social trends have coincided to create increasingly diverse societies; and current political, economic and life-philosophical contextual imperatives ask for an appreciation of diversity, and in such a context, inherited school systems appear to be more and more an anachronism. How education should be reformed in view of the new exigencies, form the concluding section of the paper.


Main Subjects

Article Title [Persian]

آموزش و پرورش و بحران فرهنگی در دنیای آغازین قرن بیست و یکم

Author [Persian]

  • Charl Wolhuter
Prof. In Comparative Education North-west University South Africa
Abstract [Persian]

در حالی که مفهوم فرهنگ در سال های آغازین قرن بیست و یکم با برداشت های گذشته آن متفاوت است ، مدارس و نظام های آموزشی در سراسر جهان هنوز هم از قالب های قبلی پیروی و با واقعیت ها و ضرورت های عصرمعاصر در مورد فرهنگ هماهنگ نیستند. با اشاره به تاریخچه آغاز مدارس در جهان باستان، و بر اساس فرضیه کوهن، مقاله حاضر بر این نکته تاکید می ورزد که چگونه مدارس تلاش کردند از یک فرهنگ غالب به نحو یکسان پیروی کنند. پس از ایجاد نظام آموزش و پرورش همگانی مبتنی بر مدارس دولتی، نظام مدرسه ای هنوز به عنوان عاملی برای یکپارچگی فرهنگی خدمت می کند. با این حال روندهای جاری جمعیت شناختی و اجتماعی به نحو فزاینده ای برالزامات تنوع جوامع از بعد سیاسی، اقتصادی و فلسفه زندگی اصرار می ورزند. در چنین زمینه ای، نظام آموزشی بیش از پیش  معنای خود را از دست می دهد. بخش پایانی مقاله نشان می دهد که چگونه نظام آموزشی برای انطباق با ضرورت های جدید باید اصلاح گردد.

Keywords [Persian]

  • آموزش و پرورش تطبیقی و بین الملل
  • فرهنگ
  • تعلیم و تربیت
  • روندهای اجتماعی
  • قرن بیست و یکم
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